Sulphite Allergy – Cooking Up Trouble
These chemical additives cause reactions that mimic allergy. But the reason why remains a mystery.
Consider the Canadian Food Inspection Agency’s list of the top 10 food groups that cause the most frequent and severe allergic reactions. Nine of the names will be familiar to most Canadians: peanuts, tree nuts, milk, eggs, fish and shellfish, soy, wheat and sesame seeds.
But the tenth name on the list may surprise: sulphites. These are the chemical additives used to stop food from browning or spoiling. In 1 per cent of the population, mostly those with asthma, even tiny amounts of sulphites can cause reactions. An estimated 4 per cent of asthmatics are sensitive to them. In Canada , there have been reports of more than 100 sulphite-related reactions, ranging from nausea and abdominal pain to anaphylactic attacks. At least one Canadian has died.
Although sulphites are known to trigger symptoms in susceptible individuals that appear to be allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, scientists still don’t know how they do this. Unlike the other food groups on the list, sulphites are chemicals, not proteins. Researchers don’t yet know whether sulphites cause the immune systems of some people to respond abnormally or whether they set off some other mechanism that causes allergic-like reactions. The researchers also haven’t figured out why sulphites pose a threat to some people and not to others.
One theory is that people sensitive to sulphites have a genetic abnormality that hinders the body’s breakdown of these chemicals. However, Dr. Susan Tarlo, a respiratory physician at Toronto’s University Health Network and a specialist in lung disease and allergic response, says her extensive research does not confirm that theory. Another theory links sulphite sensitivity to a lack of B12 vitamins, but that research is still not conclusive.
If you develop hives or have trouble breathing after a restaurant dinner and a glass of wine and suspect you may have this sensitivity, the first step is to see an allergist and confirm what is causing your reaction. The only way to be sure that it is a sulphite sensitivity is to undergo an oral challenge in a hospital setting. In such a test, doctors will give you a glass of juice with sulphites to see whether you respond. (For sulphites, Tarlo says a skin test is not reliable enough.)
The food inspection agency has added sulphites to its top 10 allergens list because they cause allergic-like reactions in such a significant number of people. (One per cent of the Canadian population equates to about 320,000 individuals.) But there is no scientific evidence that the prevalence of sulphite sensitivity has actually increased over the past years. According to Tarlo, the incidence may simply be the result of better diagnosis and awareness. In fact, in the United States, studies show that the number of sulphite reactions has actually declined with improved food labelling and a ban on spraying sulphites on raw fruits and vegetables.
Sulphite sensitivity is sometimes discovered in children but is most often identified in adults, perhaps because it is as adults that we begin to drink wine and beer. As most wines ferment, sulphites occur naturally, and winemakers usually add more of the chemicals to prevent spoiling. Some organic wineries carefully avoid these additional sulphites, and in the United States, several organic wines have been deemed to fall within safe guidelines of under 10 parts per million of the chemicals. (There are a few organic wineries in British Columbia as well.)
But not everyone with the sensitivity has summoned the nerve to try these new vintages. The reactions that Glynnis Brassil gets to sulphites might be clincially described as “mild” when compared to life-threatening food allergies. But don’t tell her that: if she drinks regular wine or eats a food containing sulphites, Brassil develops a migraine so painful that “my hair hurts.” She does not drink wine at all any more and, to avoid headaches that can last a number of days, the Vancouver computer consultant strives to “eat fresh, fresh food, not preserved, prepared or processed.”
Canadian regulations prohibit sulphites from being added or sprayed on fruit and vegetables that are intended to be consumed raw, with a key exception – grapes. But sulphites can be legally added to a wide range of packaged foods, including dried fruit and vegetables, which can have very high levels of sulphites, as well as baked goods, canned vegetables, soup mixes, jams, pickled foods, potato chips, trail mix, molasses, shrimp, guacamole, and maraschino cherries.
In the United States, packaged food with more than 10 parts per million of sulphites must disclose the presence of sulphites on the label. In Canada the rules are a little different: If sulphites are added to food that is sold in packages, the label must say so. If you don’t see sulphites on the label, however, that’s no guarantee because there are many exceptions to the rule. For example, the labelling rule does not apply to the ingredients used in a food, such as glucose, which may include sulphites. It does not apply to food prepared locally and sold in vending machines, or to food cooked and sold in a grocery store.
Sulphites that occur naturally don’t have to be listed. In Canada, wine labels do not have to disclose the presence of sulphites (real or added), although proposed federal rules may change that in the coming years.
Consumers can also be fooled by the names on a food label. The word “sulphites” is not always used. Sometimes the chemical compound is listed instead. Here are the names to watch out for: potassium bisulphite, potassium metabisulphite, sodium bisulphite, sodium metabisulphite, sodium sulphite, sodium dithionite, and sulphurous acid. All are sulphites.
There is another mysterious aspect to sulphite sensitivity: It is highly individualistic. Some people can drink a glass of wine. Others will react after a spoonful of sauce that contains a dash of red wine. This means that each person with a sulphite sensitivity will have to tailor his or her plan of action for dealing with food. If you are sensitive to sulphites, you’ll want to get advice from your allergist and perhaps a dietitian about foods that are safe to eat. There are many exceptions to the labelling rules and you need to be aware of foods that may contain this allergen.
Despite shortcomings though, current labels have proved “a huge help,” notes Brassil. “I have to go shopping with my glasses on; I have to read every ingredient on everything.” One of her personal strategies – avoid imported foods where possible, because the ingredients of the listed ingredients are not at all clear.
- If you’re sensitive to sulphites, avoid dried fruit and vegetables.
- Most wines produce natural sulphites in the fermentation process, and sulphites are also added as a preservative. But some organic wineries are creating wines with no added sulphites. Some, such as LaRocca Vineyards in California, say their wines also have no natural sulphites or only traces of it. LaRocca’s red wine contains no sulphites, while its white contains only 1 part per million of the chemical.
- Check wine labels. Under U.S. rules, wine with less than 10 parts per million of sulphites is considered safe for most who are sensitive, and winemakers are required to list the sulphite content when it is greater than that. If the the wine contains only 8 ppm, the winemaker is allowed to label it: “sulphite-free”. Canada does not require winemakers to disclose the level of sulphites on labels, but the government has proposed legislative changes that would require this. In the meantime, if it’s a North American wine, check with the winery or distributor regarding questions on sulphite content. And don’t leave “sulphite-free” bottles of wine on the shelf for long; they may spoil.
- Always read package labels, but be cautious. Even if you don’t see sulphites on the label, they may still be hidden in the food, in one of the ingredients like glucose. Also, remember that some foods prepared in grocery stores or sold in vending machines don’t have to be labelled.
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